ネペンテス クリペアタ（Nepenthes clipeata） サバイバル プログラム について
The Nepenthes clipeata Survival Program is an initiative to capture
as much of the genetic diversity in Nepenthes clipeata before
the species goes extinct in the wild. To learn more about this program, you
- Look at the FAQ entry about the program,
it is described here.
- You can look at the Nepenthes clipeata Survival Program
(NcSP) plan in MS Word Format (which is best), or you can look at the
html version of the document below.
- If you grow
Nepenthes clipeata, help with the gathering of data by
our data-gathering form.
Nepenthes clipeata Survival Program
1 January 2004
R. Cantley (1), C. Clarke (2), J. Cokendolpher (3),
B. Rice (4), A. Wistuba (5)
(1)Borneo Exotics, Sri Lanka. Email: email@example.com.
(2)Department of Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Australia.
(3)Corresponding author: 3428 56th Street, Lubbock, Texas 79413, USA.
(4)Corresponding author: Director of Conservation, International
Carnivorous Plant Society, P.O. Box 72741, Davis California 95617, USA.
(5)The Nepenthes Nursery, Germany. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The genus Nepenthes includes a number of species which are highly
endangered because of habitat destruction, fire and collection pressures.
Probably no other Nepenthes species is as endangered as
Nepenthes clipeata. First described by Danser (1928),
Nepenthes clipeata is only known from the vertical cliff faces of
Gunung Kelam, in Kalimantan Barat (Clarke, 1997). Explorations of the
surrounding mountains have failed to find additional population
(C. Lee, pers. comm.).
Despite its great rarity, Nepenthes clipeata does not grow in any
sort of national park or forest reserve.
Prior to 1980, population stresses due to field collection were not
significant because few people visited the remote cliff faces of Gunung
Kelam. Subsequently, collectors began to visit the mountain frequently
and collect large numbers of plants through the 1980s. Local guides,
enlisted by tourists, became impressed by the plants and harvested
specimens for their villages near the foot of the mountain
(R. Cantley, pers. comm.; C. Lee, pers. comm.). Such plants rapidly
perished and were replaced by new, freshly gathered specimens. Despite
these significant pressures, populations of this plant were small but
stable as recently as 1990 (Clarke, 1997). No plants were observed during
a search for the species in 1993 (J.-P. De Witte, pers. comm.).
Simpson (1995) reported that M. Jebb estimated that as few as 15 plants
may have remained in the wild by that date.
Conditions have changed within the last five years. Drought conditions in
1997-1998 resulted in significant plant mortality. A new season of drought
began early in the next decade. Interest in this plant by collectors has
increased. The CITES protection status of Nepenthes clipeata will
be recommended to be upgraded from Appendix II to Appendix I by the CPSG
(Carnivorous Plant Specialist Group, of the IUCN's Species Survival
Commission). If this is done, it is unclear how this change in status will
affect the wild populations of plants. (It is possible it may drive the
legal trade of artificially cultivated plants underground, encouraging
black market sales and other illegal activities.)
In situ Population Viability
The combination of threats from drought, fire, and collection by visitors
and native people is so severe that the plant is likely to become extinct
in the wild within 10-20 years (C. Lee, pers. comm.). In situ conservation,
always the preferred option, appears to be unrealistic and unworkable
because the single known location for this plant is not likely to be a
viable habitat in the long term-repeated burning has caused major
community changes to the mountain flora, and these burns are likely to
continue. In situ conservation would only be viable if these anthropogenic
changes were to stop and the native mountain community were to be restored.
There is no governmental interest or financial mechanism for this to
happen, so it is likely the mountain sites for Nepenthes clipeata
will continue to degrade.
Status in Cultivation
In broad terms, Nepenthes clipeata specimens in cultivation fall
into categories of "white market" and "black
White market plants include those that have been legally collected by
botanical gardens, or by carnivorous plant horticulturists who usually are
interested in introducing plants into in vitro cultivation for rapid
propagation. (Note: the in vitro cultivation methods used for
Nepenthes clipeata is not tissue culture in the usual sense,
because tissue culture strictly refers to maintaining a culture of
undifferentiated cells and in vitro propagation refers to production of
whole plants from cell cultures derived from explants [generally seeds].).
White market plants have been collected both as live plants and as seed.
Two main categories of white market plants exist:
- Plants that were collected as live plants or cuttings. While it is
difficult to introduce live Nepenthes plants into sterile in vitro
culture, it is possible.
- Plants that originated in cultivation. Supposedly, both male and
female plants are in cultivation at Munich Botanical Gardens and perhaps
elsewhere, and cross-pollination between these plants has occurred on at
least one occasion. (The first plants were placed into in vitro culture
from Munich seeds in the spring of 1997 (Wistuba, 1998). These plants are
now approaching maturity.) However, it is possible that the
cross-pollination may have been compromised by pollen from other
Nepenthes species in the Munich collection, and the genetic purity
of the progeny should be viewed cautiously. (Nepenthes clipeata is
quite distinct morphologically, so fortunately most hybrids should be
easily detectable once the plants have matured.) Other fortuitous
flowering events will inevitably occur in the future, and such
opportunities must be carefully exploited.
It is unknown how many genetically distinct lines of white market plants
exist in cultivation, but estimates place the number at three to four
(A. Wistuba, pers. comm.). Both male and female plants have been grown at
the Munich Botanical Gardens in the past.
Nepenthes clipeata Survival Project Objectives
Black market plants include those that may have been collected illegally
and without appropriate export/import documents. It is unknown how many
genetically distinct black market plants are presently in cultivation.
Some of the apparently white market plants in cultivation may have had
their origins as black market plants.
It appears that the long-term viability of wild populations of
N. clipeata is low. Therefore, it is imperative that ex situ
conservation measures be implemented. The Nepenthes clipeata
Survival Project (NcSP), under the auspices of The International
Carnivorous Plant Society, has been devised to maximize the genetic
diversity of this species in cultivation.
This document will outline the general intentions of NcSP and its
Schedule of Actions
Short Term Actions
White market plans
Medium Term Actions
- Develop a database to track all known Nepenthes clipeata
strains. Produce and distribute a questionnaire to populate this database
with tracking information on as many clones of Nepenthes clipeata
as possible. Growers in this database will be considered part of a
Nepenthes clipeata "network".
- Publicize the issues surrounding the threats to
Nepenthes clipeata, and how NcSP activities are designed to
these threats. These articles should be published in as many hobbyist
venues as possible, including at least five newsletters and journals, and
at least four major web sites.
- Make in vitro Nepenthes clipeata plants easily available
worldwide by publicizing sources of legal, ethically obtained and
propagated material. While this publicity may increase collector interest
in the plant, as long as prices are sufficiently low and supply is
sufficiently high, the actions overall should reduce collection pressures.
This information should be published in as many hobbyist venues as
possible, including at least five newsletters and journals, and at least
four major web sites.
- Develop and widely publish articles on the following aspects of
Nepenthes clipeata cultivation: Proper cultivation of in vitro and
mature plants; collecting/storing pollen, and pollinating Nepenthes;
collecting and storing seed; how to distinguish pure
Nepenthes clipeata from its various hybrids; merits of pure
Nepenthes clipeata vs. hybrids. This information should be
published in as many hobbyist venues as possible, including at least five
newsletters and journals, and at least four major web sites.
- Establish a network to store and distribute Nepenthes clipeata
pollen and/or seed produced. The network should include strains of at
least 75% of the plants included in the tracking database.
- Encourage growers of larger plants to exchange cuttings so adult plants
of different clones can be housed together and hopefully increase chances
of concurrent flowering. Members of the Nepenthes clipeata growers
network can be given advice on how to apply for appropriate CITES
paperwork to best participate in this program. If appropriate and if in
the interest of the success of the overall program, the NcSP will
help defray the costs of CITES paperwork.
- If appropriate, develop and formalize relationships between the
NcSP and organizations such as the International Carnivorous Plant
Society (ICPS) or the IUCN (especially the Carnivorous Plant Specialist
- A budget showing expenses and reimbursements should be developed for
Long Term Actions
- There are currently no plans to engage in plants of dubious origin.
However, The NcSP will remain open to the possibility of
accessioning into its databases information about such plants. Similarly,
plant stock with dubious origins may be incorporated into NcSP plans
if a protocol can be devised that is satisfactory to the NcSP, as
well as related conservation groups. If this issue becomes too divisive or
problematical, and unnecessarily risks the success of the NcSP,
actions relating to it will probably be postponed.
- Future collections from the wild are probably unjustified. If, however,
additional material were collected, only seeds should be removed.
- Initiate contacting local governing bodies in Kalimantan Barat. While
visitation to Gunung Kelam remains low, maintaining some level of vigilance
on activities in the area, through communication with locals, would be
- Investigate if other plants in the area of Kalimantan Barat are
endangered and what efforts are underway to support their conservation.
Joint proposals should be sought with such groups.
- It may be useful to place tissue samples from identified pure or hybrid
strains of N. clipeata plant into DNA preservatives (ultracold
storage, DMS, 100% ethanol, etc.) as a basis for future studies.
- Identify organizations such as botanical gardens, horticultural
societies, and conservation organizations that would be willing to
cooperate with the NcSP. Investigate sources of funding for these
initiatives. Ron Gagliardo (Atlanta Botanical Gardens), Ruth Kiew
(Singapore), Kath King (Kew) might be appropriate initial contacts.
- Make arrangements for the storage of pollen and fertilized seeds in
cryogenic storage. Seeds are to be deposited with the understanding that a
set number of seeds can be removed by the project at anytime and that the
storage facility will notify the project at least 3 months in advance if
they are no longer able to care for the storage of the seeds. Agreements to
be established for 50 or 100 years. At least two facilities should be
sought on different continents (likely to be USA, Europe, and possibly
Japan). Arrangements have already been established for receipt of seeds and
pollen and temporary storage (at -80 degrees C) at Texas Tech
University, Lubbock, Texas (via Cokendolpher) until other arrangements for
long-term storage have been made.
Long Term Actions
Reintroduction plans could be developed and implemented. A useful starting
point for this kind of difficult, expensive, and risky project would be the
work of Veena Tandan (Department of Zoology, North Eastern Hill University,
Shillong 793022, Meghalaya) (Akula, 1996). Professor Katsuhiko Kondo
(Japan) has worked with a somewhat similar project, involving
Aldrovanda vesiculosa in Japan, and could be a good resource in this
kind of project.
- Identify individuals that could conduct research if funding were
available which could contribute to the survival of this and other
Nepenthes species. Further, assist these individuals in locating
funds for such projects. Examples of such projects might be:
- Investigate karyology for determining sexes of young plants
- Factors influencing blooming
- Factors influencing apomyxis
- Method for preparing meristem tissue culture
- Effects of long-term cryogenic storage on pollen and fertilized
- Establish protocol for DNA testing for culling hybrids from breeding
program and establish limits of populations
- Investigations on minimal numbers of unrelated plants needed for
survival in wild
- Investigate population viability of
Nepenthes clipeata---determine minimum number of plants needed to
ensure long term viability.
To determine if NcSP is reaching its goals, the following timetable
is proposed for the next two years.
Financial Support and Future Programs
- By March 2004: Develop database for tracking clones and larger plants
of N. clipeata in culture.
- By June 2004: Make arrangements with at least 2 (one in USA, one in
Europe) cryogenic storage facilities to store fertilized seeds and pollen.
- By June 2004: Submit for publication (on WWW and all major carnivorous
plant society newsletters/journals) notices of the database and project
activities requesting help/data.
- By September 2004: Prepare web pages on cultivation and propagation.
- By January 2005: Establish at least 5 distinct clones of
N. clipeata in at least 6 different botanical gardens (2 in USA,
2 in Europe, 2 in Australasia).
At present, NcSP activities are being supported by the volunteer
work of the NcSP founding members. In the future, financial support
will be required to pay for its activities.
- Some funds to support the NcSP can be provided by the ICPS
conservation fund. This discretionary fund is managed by the ICPS Director
- Future corporate or private support may be sought for the NcSP.
- Nurseries may be encouraged to contribute an as-yet undetermined
amount per Nepenthes clipeata plant sold.
The NcSP is a pilot program. If it is successful (as shown by its
measures of success), additional, similar programs may be launched.
Akula, D. 1996. Re: Nepenthes,
plant-tc listserve posting.
Clarke, C. 1997. Nepenthes of Borneo. Natural History Publications,
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, xii + 207 pp.
Danser, B.H. 1928. The Nepenthaceae of the Netherland Indies, Bulletin de
Jardin de Botanique, Buitenzorg, Serie III, 9(3-4): 249-348.
Simpson, R.B. 1995. Nepenthes and conservation. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 12: 111-118
Wistuba, A. 1998. Re:N. clipeata question. CP Mailing List Archives
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出典：Sources cited above
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